Read about the GeoNet response to the landslides and rockfalls after the Christchurch earthquake: GNS Science Immediate Report LD8 (NZTopo50-BX24)/941-947 (6.32Mb) Report on Landslide Reconnaissance Flight on 24 February 2011 following the MW 6.3 Christchurch Earthquake of 22 February 2011 2011 Christchurch Earthquake MIHOP: Another Manmade Catastrophe Caused By The USual Suspects Who Knew It Was Coming And Why? Scientists find rare mix of factors exacerbated Christchurch quake. , Twelve streets in Redcliffs were evacuated on the night of 24 February 2015 after some cliffs and hills surrounding Redcliffs were deemed unstable. The 2011 Inter Dominion harness racing series was scheduled to be held at Addington Raceway in March and April however the series was instead contested in Auckland. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. The earthquake had a magnitude of 6.3 on the Richter scale. Surgenor, L.J., Snell, D.L., & Dorathy, M.L. Christchurch's Catholic basilica has remained closed since the 2011 earthquake. On one of their journeys, an RAAF Hercules sustained minor damage in an aftershock. New Zealand is on the edge of a tectonic plate and is prone to earthquakes, same as Japan & California. Three RNZAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters were also used to transport Police, VIP's and aid to locations around Christchurch.  While emergency repairs were performed on damaged houses by Fletcher Construction, rebuilding would be delayed by the need for full land assessments, with the possibility that some of the worst-affected areas in the eastern suburbs might need to be abandoned due to land depression and severe liquefaction, with the residents offered relocation to new subdivisions under their EQC insurance policies. , Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, issued a statement on behalf of the UN expressing his "deep sadness" and stressed the "readiness of the United Nations to contribute to its efforts in any way needed". Since the fault movement that caused the earthquake did not visibly breach the Earth’s surface, scientists were reliant on measurements from a variety of instruments to determine the location and nature of the fault movements.  Power had been restored to 82% of households within five days, and to 95% within two weeks. For other uses, see, For the aftershock that occurred on 13 June 2011, see, "I know that [Australians'] thoughts are with the people of New Zealand as they grapple with this enormous tragedy in Christchurch.  Personality traits, such as neuroticism and low self-control are associated with a lower sense of normalcy following an earthquake, however optimism is predictive of lower and less severe PTSD symptoms.. The station collapsed on 13 June 2011 after a magnitude 6.0 aftershock. It was about 5 km underground. The President also made a call to Prime Minister Key. Statistics New Zealand's main urban area definition for Christchurch includes Kaiapoi, which belongs to Waimakariri District, and Prebbleton, which belongs to Selwyn District. Twelve Japanese students from the Toyama College of Foreign Languages died in the building collapse. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. In the 2010 earthquake, 180,000 claims were processed as opposed to the expected 130,000 claims for the 2011 aftershock. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches.  Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. Marshall, E.M., Frazier, P., Frankfurt, S., & Kuijer, R.G. , The chief executive of Statistics New Zealand, Geoff Bascand, announced on 25 February that the national census planned for 8 March 2011 would not take place due to the disruption and displacement of people in the Canterbury region, and also the damage sustained by Statistics New Zealand's buildings in Christchurch, which was scheduled to process much of the census. , Generators were donated, and telephone companies established emergency communications and free calls. We will be working alongside them to give as much relief and assistance to New Zealand as we possibly can. New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. 3 000 buildings in total were inspected, of that total 45% were deemed unsafe and were given a yellow or red sticker. Finance Minister Bill English advised that the effects of the 2011 quake were likely to be more costly than the September 2010 quake.  They were aided by DVI teams from Australia, UK, Thailand Taiwan and Israel..  Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. , On 7 March, Prime Minister John Key said that around 10,000 houses would need to be demolished, and liquefaction damage meant that some parts of Christchurch could not be rebuilt on. This was a new phenomenon for most New Zealanders, yet it has been a feature during earthquakes throughout this … Many thousands of people suffe… , Claims from the 2010 shock were estimated at NZ$2.75–3.5 billion. The earthquake was caused by the rupture of a 15-kilometre-long fault along the southern edge of the city, from Cashmere to the Avon–Heathcote estuary.  By mid-2019 early design and stabilisation work had begun. This is the cause the 2011 New Zealand earthquake. The fault slopes southward beneath the Port Hills and did not break the surface – scientists used instrument measurements to determine its location and movement. The second civic office building of Christchurch City Council, Our City, had already been damaged in the September earthquake and was heavily braced following the February event. The quarter final matches were moved to Auckland. Bottom: Transform.  KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. At the sight of the Christchurch earthquake and other earthquakes worldwide, liquefaction can take place. Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater.  Kamalesh Sharma, Commonwealth Secretary-General, sent a message of support to the Prime Minister and stated "our heart and condolences go immediately to the bereaved." Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, J., Boden, J.M., & Mulder, R.T. (2014).  Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake, attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. In April 2013 the Government estimated the total cost of the rebuild would be as much as $40 billion, up from an earlier estimate of $30 billion. February's earthquake was forecast . , Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. It was about 5 km underground. On 23 February, Hotel Grand Chancellor, Christchurch's tallest hotel, was reported to be on the verge of collapse. Killing 185 people, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake is recorded as the nation’s most deadliest national disaster.  Land movement was varied around the area horizontally—in both east and west directions—and vertically; the Port Hills were raised by 40 cm. Christchurch, the country’s second largest city, suffered widespread damage, particularly in the central city and eastern suburbs. The commission was chaired by High Court judge Justice Mark Cooper with support from two other Commissioners, engineers Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. ", CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Television interview with Minister Brownlee on NZ TV One, 24 February 2011 at 19:30 NZT. Liquefaction is a process that temporarily turns firm ground into a liquid. , At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high.
Abstract. Earth science information (data, knowledge, advice) can enhance the evidence base for land-use decision-making. The fault which the Christchurch quake of 2011 occurred on was unknown before the event. , In the year to June 2011, the population of Christchurch had fallen by 8,900 people or 2.4% of its population, with a historic annual population growth of 1%. NSW Task Force 1, a team of 72 urban search and rescue specialists from New South Wales, Australia was sent to Christchurch on two RAAF C-130J Hercules, arriving 12 hours after the quake. Before the earthquake occurred, there were many disaster response personnel and government officials from the US an , The Queen said she was "utterly shocked" and her "thoughts were with all those affected".  Mains water supply was re-established to 70% of households within one week. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning, A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes. Once the composite Christchurch Coordination Centre was established on 23 February the CDEM Group Controllers and ECC personnel relocated to the City Art Gallery to supplement the management personnel available to the National Controller.  Retrospective self-report is affected greatly by the individual's current state of distress. The damage in Christchurch was far more substantial than the damage caused in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months before. The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. The powerful earthquake that smashed buildings, cracked roads and twisted rail lines in Christchurch also ripped a new 3.5m-wide fault line in the Earth's surface. Below is a list of all aftershocks of Richter, moment, and body-wave magnitudes 5.0 and above that occurred in the region between 22 February 2011 and 15 January 2012. Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010, List of tallest buildings in Christchurch, St Paul's-Trinity-Pacific Presbyterian Church, International Charter on Space and Major Disasters, Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011, The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission, UC CEISMIC Canterbury Earthquakes Digital Archive, List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll, "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Technical", "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Story", "Ice breaks off glacier after Christchurch quake", "List of deceased – Christchurch earthquake", "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Details", "M 6.1 – South Island of New Zealand: Regional information", "Factors combined to intensify Chch quake", "New Zealand hit by strong quake, 65 dead", "Deadly quake could be sign of more to come", "Christchurch earthquake: Rockfall threat still strong, say experts", "Christchurch quake press conference Monday morning", "The Christchurch Feb 22nd Earthquake: A Personal Report", "New Zealand quake raises questions about L.A. buildings", "Second Christchurch fault much better behaved", "Christchurch earthquake: Wrecker's tip for leaning tower", "Christchurch earthquake: Radar points to rupturing of single fault", "Port Hills half a metre taller after Christchurch earthquake", "22 February 2011 – Christchurch badly damaged by magnitude 6.3 earthquake", "Christchurch earthquake: Deadly tremors rebounded on city", "New Zealand Earthquake Report – Apr 16 2011 at 5:49 pm (NZST)", "Damage assessed after 'violent' 5.3 aftershock hits Christchurch", "New Zealand Earthquake Report – Jun 13 2011 at 1:01 pm (NZST)", "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Technical", "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Details", "Workmen unscathed as Timeball Station collapses", "Canterbury Earthquake: Fire Service struggling to cope with rescue effort", "Canterbury Earthquake: Main roads to Christchurch open", "Christchurch quake: 'Dead bodies lying around, "New Zealand earthquake: 65 dead in Christchurch", "Christchurch quake: 'Buildings just piled on top of people, "How will we rebuild our shattered city? Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement.  They were supplemented by 116 soldiers from the Singapore Army, in Christchurch for a training exercise at the time of the earthquake, who assisted in the cordon of the city. Most of the damage was in areas surrounding the epicentres.  New Zealand's governor-general, Sir Anand Satyanand, attended, along with John Key, Bob Parker, and a number of local and international dignitaries. The scale of the destruction all but defies belief when we can appreciate only too well how difficult it must have been struggling to come to terms with last year's horror ... Our deepest sympathy and constant thoughts are with you and all New Zealanders. Soil liquefaction and surface flooding also occurred. , The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. Julian is Blogging about "Rock-popping" in the Port Hills. Christchurch Earthquake 2011. , KiwiRail reported that the TranzAlpine service was terminating at Greymouth and the TranzCoastal terminating at Picton. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. , In January 2013 Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee said repairs to damaged homes to date had totalled more than $1 billion. The September earthquake happen… The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … , The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011. While the judgements were mostly in favour of the church, no further demolition occurred after the removal of the tower in early 2012.  Although the rupture was subsurface, satellite images indicated that the net displacement of the land south of the fault was 50 cm westwards and upwards; the land movement would have been greater during the earthquake. Marian College did not return to the original site in Shirley but instead moved to a site at Cathedral College on Barbadoes Street. (2015). On 22 February 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch shortly before 12:50pm at a shallow depth of four kilometres. His advice was that the 2011 earthquake was a "new event" and that EQC's reinsurance cover was already in place after the previous 2010 event. , Although smaller in magnitude than the 2010 earthquake, the February earthquake was more damaging and deadly for a number of reasons. Some government departments and church groups provided grants and assistance.  By comparison, the 2010 quake—in which damage was predominantly to pre-1970s buildings—exerted 65% of the design loading on buildings. Land around the fault, in the Port Hills, in Cashmere and in the seaside suburbs, rose, fell and slid. , Canterbury University partially reopened on 14 March 2011, with many lectures held in tents and marquees while work was carried out on university buildings. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in Police Staff 12–18 months after the Canterbury earthquakes. Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater. , On the day of the earthquake, the main secondary school teachers' union, the Post Primary Teachers Association, had arranged a paid union meeting to be held that afternoon for members in the Christchurch area. The 21-storey PricewaterhouseCoopers building, the city's tallest office tower, was among the office buildings to be later demolished. Land around the fault, in the Port Hills, in Cashmere and in the seaside suburbs, rose, fell and slid. State of national emergency. Linwood College and Shirley Boys' High School moved back to their original sites on 1 August (the first day of Term 3), and 13 September 2011 respectively. , Damage occurred to many older buildings, particularly those with unreinforced masonry and those built before stringent earthquakes codes were introduced. Christchurch being New Zealand’s second most populated city, there were many casualties caused by the earthquake. Aftershocks were concentrated at the east end of the fault towards Christchurch as rock distorted by the original earthquake adjusted to new stresses. " It was only the second time that New Zealand had declared a national civil defence emergency; the first occasion was the 1951 waterfront dispute.  The acceleration occurred mainly in a vertical direction, with eyewitness accounts of people being tossed into the air. The fault that caused the quake cannot be seen from the surface, but it runs about 6 km south of the city centre.  All courses expected to resume by 28 March, with plans for the April break to be shortened by two weeks to make up for lost time.  In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). Context - on 22 February 2011 a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck in Christchurch, which has probably killed more than 200 people (at this point the number is still not known) and caused very severe damage. The Canterbury Earthquakes caused a lot of damage, mostly in the city centre and eastern suburbs.  The central business district (CBD) experienced PGAs in the range of 0.574 and 0.802 g. As a comparison, the 7.0 Mw 2010 Haiti earthquake had an estimated PGA of 0.5g. This is a difficult topic to research because fixing the physical damage from a disaster is usually the first step a city takes towards recovery. More than 361 aftershocks occurred in the first week following the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. The earthquake was caused by the two plates being forced together for a long time. One person died of a heart attack suffered during the quake, but doctors could not determine whether the quake was the cause. The Christchurch Earthquake (2011) Home; Causes ; Impacts ; Mitigation; References; Casualties, Damages and Other Effects. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. The city of Christchurch experienced a major earthquake centred south of the city; severe damage and casualties occurred.  The acceleration experienced in February 2011 would "totally flatten" most world cities, causing massive loss of life; in Christchurch, New Zealand's stringent building codes limited the disaster. The earthquake was caused by the two plates being forced together for a long time.  Fire-fighting and recovery operations resumed that night, later joined by a Japanese search and rescue squad. The Earthquake had a magnitude of 6.3 and an epicentre of 43.58°S, 172.68°E. , Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard offered Australia's assistance.  Due to the injuries sustained some bodies remained unidentified.  A government report later found that the building's construction was faulty and should not have been approved.  Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. A September 2010 earthquake centered 40 kilometers (25 miles) west of Christchurch, in the plains near Darfield, struck at 4:35 a.m., had a magnitude of 7.1, and caused some structural damage and one death (by heart attack). The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Water and wastewater services were disrupted throughout the city, with authorities urging residents to conserve water and collect rainwater. 185 people were killed in the February earth quake … Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand. Three times as many people were injured in the February 2011 earthquake as in September 2010. ", David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, issued a statement and sent SMS text messages to Commonwealth prime ministers. , China gave US$500,000 to the earthquake appeal, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao expressed his deep condolences to New Zealand. 6.3 magnitude earthquake part of aftershock sequence It excluded the investigation of any questions of liability, the earthquake search and rescue effort, and the rebuilding of the city. Language schools and other groups catering for international students were hit particularly hard, with international enrolments dropping by 57% between 2010 and 2012. what caused the christchurch earthquake 2011.  This is the highest PGA ever recorded in New Zealand; the highest reading during the September 2010 event was 1.26g, recorded near Darfield. , Several areas in and around Christchurch were deemed infeasible to rebuild due to earthquake damage resulting from soil liquefaction and rockslides. , The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch.  The displacement of large numbers of citizens following a trauma poses as a problem for researchers of natural disasters.  Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population.  As of February 2015, there had been 1240 demolitions within the four avenues since the September 2010 earthquakes. , A field hospital providing 75 beds was set up in the badly affected eastern suburbs on 24 February. What happened to the buildings? The Christchurch rebuild is forecast to start in earnest during the second half of 2012, continuing through to at least 2016. Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. The earthquake epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 kilometres south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. New Zealand sits on the boundary between the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. 115 people died in the building, which housed a TV station, a medical clinic and an English language school.  All Black Sonny Bill Williams and Sky Television both made large donations from Williams' fourth boxing bout which was dubbed "The Clash For Canterbury". Christchurch Earthquake response. For personal effects, EQC pays out the first NZ$20,000 plus tax. , Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. After 7 years, the school is set to be moved to Redcliffs Park in 2020. Tremors continue to hit Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region, mostly centered around the small Canterbury town of Darfield. Government expressed its concern over the stalemate and appointed an independent negotiator and in September 2017, the Christchurch Diocesan Synod announced that ChristChurch Cathedral will be reinstated after promises of extra grants and loans from local and central government. Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. ... Earthquakes can cause sections of earth to liquefy and push up to the surface as watery silt. Each individual can react differently to traumatic events, and more research needs to be done to learn how to predict vulnerability and access the effects to find solutions that work best.  This information is important to consider when reacting to future earthquakes and other natural disasters.  Meanwhile, the Canterbury CDEM Group ECC had relocated to the fully operational University of Canterbury Innovation (UCi3) building to the West of the city, when the Copthorne Hotel adjacent to the Regional Council offices threatened to fall onto the offices and ECC. As per the protocols of New Zealand's Coordinated Incident Management System, the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act, and the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan and Guide, Civil Defence Emergency Management became lead agency—with the Director of the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management John Hamilton as National Controller. 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